Most of the pistachio lands are located near the desert and in areas where the daily evaporation is high in the summer, so surface irrigation methods in the desert areas have low efficiency (about 50%).
On the other hand, Successful farmers around the globe use dripIrrigation system to irrigate almost any intensive crop or plant like pistachio, this system vary from high-end and computer controlled to simple low-tech with intensive labor involved. In below we are describing three irrigation systems which have the most efficiency in usage of water.
Surface ِDrip Irrigation System
In this system, the water is taken by pumping and with the initial pressure from the filters past to the suspended particles and after passing through the main and secondary pipes reaches into the discharge tubes (duct tubes) and from tubes sheds in the area of root and penetrates into the soil.
In case of proper design and implementation, the efficiency of this method is about 90% and only 10% of the water will be wasted.
Subsurface Drip Irrigation System
The system is as same as surface drip irrigation, with the difference that the pipes are buried in the basement and at a depth of about 40 centimeters. In this method, water is drained under the soil and at the root of the plant and is used by plant, because of the limited evaporation, the accumulation of salinity is also lower, so it is possible to use it in water with higher salinity.
The irrigation efficiency in this system is about 95%.
Porous Pipe Irrigation System
This irrigation system is similar to a subsurface drip irrigation system, but there is no other droplet of water and it has a porous pipe (like the sponge) that water leaks from pipes.
It is a fantastic way of saving water and time.
In this method, the pipes are buried deep into the soil and the efficiency is about 95%.
The only limitation of drip irrigation systems is salt deposit, which shut the tubes & the other is the accumulation of salts on the soil surface.
Source: “Taher Agroindustrial Group”